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802.11ax – Uplink and Downlink Operations

Wifi 6 enhances the 802.11ac technology by improving the Network Efficiency with higher data rates. Here are the key features which 802.11ax provides over 802.11c. Let’s dive in a little – Parameters 802.11ac 802.11ax Spectrum No Support for 2.4 GHz Supports 5GHz only Supports 2.4 GHzSupports 5 GHzSupports 6 GHz (extended) Bandwidth 20 MHz, 40Continue reading “802.11ax – Uplink and Downlink Operations”

802.11k – Radio Resource Management

The 802.11k protocol provides mechanisms for APs and clients to dynamically measure the available radio resources by sending neighbor reports, beacon reports, and link measurement reports to each other. This allows the APs and clients to understand the RF environment and helps the client to take improved roaming decisions. Neighbor Report Request/Response Neighbor Requests areContinue reading “802.11k – Radio Resource Management”

Block Acknowledgement

Block acknowledgement (BA) was initially defined in IEEE 802.11e as an optional scheme to improve the MAC efficiency. 802.11n amendment ratified in 2009 enhances this BA mechanism then made it as mandatory to support by all 802.11n-capable devices. The Originator which intends to use Block Ack Mechanism, should first check if the recipient station is capable of participating in BlockContinue reading “Block Acknowledgement”

WPA3-Personal (SAE)

Simultaneous Authentication of Equals (SAE) is a new Pre Shared Key (PSK) based authentication introduced in IEEE 802.11-2016 specification that intends to replace the less secure WPA2-PSK authentication. Why SAE over PSK ? With Pre Shared Key, the chances of offline dictionary attacks are more where an attack can be performed by obtaining a ciphertext generatedContinue reading “WPA3-Personal (SAE)”

802.11N Features

IEEE 802.11n is an amendment to the IEEE 802.11-2007 wireless networking standard to improve network throughput over the two previous standards — 802.11a and 802.11g — with a significant increase in the maximum raw data rate from 54 Mbit/s to 600 Mbit/s with the use of four spatial streams at a channel width of 40 MHz.Continue reading “802.11N Features”

Details on Cryptography

What is cryptography ? Cryptography is the study of securing communications from those for who intend to read and possibly misuse the sensitive content of the communication. Encryption algorithms are used to encrypt the data by taking the original message, or plaintext, and converts it into cipher-text, which is not understandable.  There are five primary functions ofContinue reading “Details on Cryptography”


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